To recap, first there was that supplement 補 - yer body 身 - soup 湯
(보신탕). It's a pleasant arrangement in the classical V+O modifies head N style and seemed to do a good job of suiting everyone's needs. Especially during the fast-approaching dog days of summer.
But no. It appears there was a secret need for that to be all shaken up.
So now we have 몸 body - 補 supplement - 湯 soup
(몸보탕), with the order reversed to the Korean pattern O + V modifies head N. Which is great, but 보 by itself is supposed to be a bound-morpheme and shouldn't be left to float freely among other words like that. Might lead to dancing...
And, horror of horrors, it seems to be catching on
I guess it all works because 몸 is certainly free, 탕 is pretty-much free and the compound is simple enough to be abundantly clear. Perhaps even to the poor "ingredients" that are caged next to the restaurant...
The other day the Sanchon Hunjang was re-watching 김기덕
's masterpiece of beautiful cinematography, 봄여름가을결 그리고봄
. Of course the floating hermitage is still as stunningly beautiful as ever. Just like a lotus in a viewing pond, with its roots in grimy reality but has risen above the filth to bloom on the surface. It's a shame that the hermitage doesn't exist in the
Anyhow, the thing that struck the Sanchon Hunjang this time was the older monk's young disciple, who comes back after a prodigal foray into the defiled world, pursued by the police with a warrant for his arrest for murder. It is obvious to all that the younger disciple's emotions have run amok and wreaked havoc with his life. The older monk persuades the police to wait while he has the young disciple carve the 반야심경 Prajna Heart Sutra
in good sized characters right there on the wooden patio in front of the floating hermitage.
This is because "the Heart Sutra has the power to calm the emotions," he explains. So the young disciple stays up all night carving the 260 characters of the monk's running script calligraphy into the patio before he is taken into custody, a changed man.
There seems little doubt that the disciple needed to reign in the emotions that were driving him. But the implication that, because the name of the Heart Sutra contains the word "heart," it should naturally be good at controlling affairs of the heart seems a bit tenuous. Not being too familiar with Buddhism, the Sanchon Hunjang wasn't sure how much credence to give this interpretation. But fortunately he has a native informant who is of a scientific and analytical bent both in life and business, and who also happens to be Buddhist. CP confirms that the Heart Sutra is an abridgment of the Diamond Sutra 금강경, and thus is a crystallization of the "heart" of the teachings of the Buddha.
CP then went on to expound upon how hanging a painting of the Bodhi-dharma
has the power to dissipate harmful electromagnetic waves and ensure the health, happiness and wish fulfillment of the owner. Provided that it was painted by a monk with true spiritual power. Not a charlatan. This he knows because he saw it proved using the scientific method on television. Just for completeness, they also tested photostatic copies of the paintings and found that the copies do not possess the power of the originals. And these can be had, frame included, for a very reasonable KRW 3oo,ooo. Um... So much for "scientific and analytical approach to life and business." ㅡ.ㅡ;;;;;;;;;;
It does not appear that they tested electronic Internet images, however. And, since the Sanchon Hunjang is in desperate need of health and fulfillment of wishes, here I hang my very own image of the Bodhi-dharma. Neatly pirated from some random website
. Hmmmmm. Interestingly, not only was Mr. Dharma the founder of the meditational school of Buddhism, but according to this highly authoritative website, it appears that he may also dabbled in the way of the empty hand
At any rate, the Heart Sutra is short and sweet enough. And by its shape, anyone can easily see that it was destined to have a great effect on the people of a certain peninsular nation:
Here in Korea, you can even get it being chanted as a ring tone for your phone. And its influence on Korean cinema stretches far beyond 김기덕. There was that ever-forgettable 색즉시공 色卽是空
that took its name from a line in the Heart Sutra and then punned its English name, Sex is Zero
, on the titillating word 色 (in the original it would seem to mean something like "visual form"). Before that, the legendary 임권택
directed a movie where 강수연
looses her locks, that took its name from the Heart Sutra, 아제아제바라아제
. If you would prefer that in Chinese graphs, it is 揭諦揭諦 波羅揭諦. Is that helpful?
Maybe with character glosses? 揭: 높이 들 게,
諦: 진리 제
, 波: 물결 파, 羅: 벌릴 라.
I thought not...
All the funny Sanskrit
(or maybe its Pali
?) loanwords peppered in Buddhist texts mean that the non-expert can never be sure whether to take words at what they appear to mean, which makes for extremely slow reading. This is true even though Charles Muller has put the Soothill dictionary
and his own Digital Dictionary of Buddhism
on line to help out.
Give it a taste yourself on the Prajna Heart Sutra (with parsing hints provided but Pali/Sanskrit left untranslated):
Avalokiteśvara 觀自在 bodhisattva菩薩 was practicing 行 deep 深 prajnaparamita 般若波羅密多 At that time 時, [he] illuminated 照 and saw 見 the five 五 skandhas 蘊, that they were all 皆 empty 空. [He thus] crossed beyond 度 all 一切 suffering 苦 and difficulty 厄.
Shariputra 舍利子! Form 色 is not 不 different 異 from emptiness 空; emptiness 空 is not 不 different 異 from form 色. Form 色 straightway 卽 is 是 emptiness 空; emptiness 空 straightway 卽 is 是 form 色. Reception 受, thought 想, action 行, and cognition 識 are also 亦復 like 如 this 是.
Shariputra 舍利子! These 是 all 諸 dharma 法 are empty of 空 aspect 相: [they] are not 不 born 生, are not 不 extinguished 滅, are not 不 impure 垢, are not 不 pure 淨, are not 不 increased 增, are not 不 reduced 減. For this reason 是故, in emptiness 空中 there is no 無 form 色, there is no 無 reception 受, thought 想, action 行 or cognition 識. There are no 無 eyes 眼, ears 耳, noses 鼻, tongues 舌, bodies 身, nor wills 意. There is no 無 form 色, sound 聲, scent 香, taste 味, touch 觸, nor dharma 法. There is no 無 eye-field 眼界 up to and including 乃至 that there is no 無 field of will or consciousness 意識界 there is no 無 lack of 無 brightness 明 and also 亦 there is no 無 end to the lack of brightness 無明盡 up to and including 乃至 that there is no 無 old age 老 or death 死 and also 亦 there is no 無 end to old age and death 老死盡. There is no 無 suffering 苦, accumulating 集, extinguishing 滅, nor way 道. There is no 無 wisdom 智 and also 亦 there is no 無 obtaining 得. Because there is nothing which is obtained 以無所得故, the bodhisattva 菩提薩, relies on 依 prajnaparamita 般若波羅密多. Thus 故 [his] heart 心 has no 無 obstacles 碍. Because [it] has no obstacles 無碍故, [he] lacks 無 having 有 fears 恐 or trepidation 怖. [He] leaves far behind 遠離 the inverted 顚 and upside down 倒 dreamy 夢 thoughts 想, [reaching] the end of 究竟 nirvana 涅槃.
The myriad Buddhas of the three spheres 三世諸佛 rely on 依 prajnaparamita 般若波羅密多. Thus 故 [they] obtain 得 nuttara-samyak-sambodhi 阿耨多羅三 三菩提. Thus 故 know 知 that prajnaparamita 般若波羅密多 is 是 a great 大 spiritually forceful 神 incantation 呪. It is 是 a great 大 brilliant 明 incantation 呪. It is 是 an untopped 無上 incantation 呪. It is 是 an unequaled 無等等 incantation 呪 that is able to 能 eliminate 除 all 一切 suffering 苦. [It is] true 眞 and real 實, not 不 empty 虛. Therefore 故 [did he] speak 說 the prajnaparamita 般若波羅密多 incantation 呪. [He] namely 卽 spoke 說 the incantation 呪, saying 曰: "Gaté Gaté Paragaté Parasamgaté Bodhi Svaha! 揭諦揭諦波羅揭諦波羅僧揭諦菩提娑婆訶."
☞ The actual mantra is usually repeated 3 times, and sounds like this in Korean: 아제아제 바라아제 바라승아제 모지 사바하.
And that, dear friends, is another reason that, even after many years invested in libraries pouring over dusty 한문 texts, one can still get disparaging comments like, "oh, I thought you knew
Chinese" by well-meaning acquaintances if they find you unable to respond coherently to their request to extemporaneously translate the cursive calligraphy on random pillars at a Buddhist temples. Now you can never say that you weren't warned. ^^
So the marketing people over at Seoul Milk have hit a grand slam home run. They've come up with a snazzy slogan that means something in both "Korean" and English at the same time. What a feat! Take a look at this Seoul Milk truck that the Sanchon Hunjang happened upon on his way home from work:
There it is, clear as day: I [heart] you. Or, in the Korean version, "I love tits." You can't accuse the guys over at Seoul Milk of being dishonest. Lacking a sense of taste about where to declare their fetishes, perhaps, but certainly frankness is not a weakness here...
And, on the subject of breasts, or nipples, King Wen of the Zhou
(depicted here with nipples covered, to protect the squeamish) apparently had four of them. Not only did he have four, but this was taken as a sign of his high level of humanity. Doubt an old Sanchon Hunjang? Just ask the Kangxi Emperor
: 文王四乳 , 是謂至仁. (Quoted from Comprehensive [Discourses] at the White Tiger [pavilion]
The things you can learn about people from browsing old dictionaries...
...and milk delivery trucks.
Isn't change just a nasty thing? Them old folk sitting around jawboning about the good ol' days have got it right. For example, how much better Korean used to be before the process of palatalization
Yep, those old listeners used to be able to tell the difference between, for example, "to fall 디다" and "to bear on the back 지다" or "to get fatter (살) 지다" just by the sound of the word and no need to rely on such frivolities as context.
There is a whole string of victims to the declining industry in pronunciation:
- "to pound with a pestle 디흘" ⇔ "to name (이름) 지흘."
- "good 됴흔" ⇔ "clean/clear 조흔" [both "으" are actually 아래아 but precious few have installed the archaic Korean font required to view it, your web diarist included.]
- "straw 딥" ⇔ "house 집"
- "that 뎌" ⇔ "to put physical effort in 져" or "chopsticks "져"
People used to have no problem saying their d-before-i and could even prove their tongue dexterity by slipping in a glide vowel! But then all of the sudden, around the end of the 16th century, things began to shift.
People began not saying 뎔 to mean Buddhist temple anymore.
Useful verbs like "to carry 디니다," and "to keep/protect 디키다" went the way of the chyrannosaurus rex. And there wasn't even a huge meteor impact to trigger the change!
"It's just to hard," I'm sure was their excuse as they gradually adopted "절" and "지키다."
Nowadays it looks strangely archaic to see something written "뎌." Rather like Chaucer's spelling. Or saying "Ye Olde..."임권택
thought it would be cool to lean on the archaic feel of the ㄷ as ㅈ effect in the title of his 판소리 move 춘향뎐
. But he confused a whole slew of little 중학생 who hadn't learned about palitazation in 국어 class yet. They began fretting and madly writing their friends to figure out the relationship between 춘향전 and 춘향뎐
Now, of course, The Story of Spring Fragrance was originally oral literature and, as such it existed in many versions that differed depending on the mood of the narrator as well as probably the response of the audience on any given day. The Sanchon Hunjang can't find any specific reference to 춘향뎐 as such, but the character 傳 is glossed with the pronunciation 뎐
. So, while we can't be sure whether Mr. Im is just trying to lend an archaic flavor or whether he's following an actual name that was written somewhere.
To recap, we now have 디 / 뎌 → 지 / 져 or 저, in spite of 임권택 trying to turn back the clock.
People adjusted to the changed sound of those vocabulary items. And it was accepted that ㄷ is not followed by ㅣ or ㅕ, just like leading ㄹ are simplified to ㅇ or ㄴ. Once again all was right with the world.
But then one day somebody came along with a nifty new electronic device. Everyone who beheld it wanted to have one. They asked the owner what the name was, and she, fresh returned from the West, said "radio." Everyone ooh-ed and ah-ed. But how are you gonna say "radio" when you can't say "디" any more (let's just ignore the point that leading ㄹ are also not allowed in Korean...unless you're a 빨갱이, that is)? 라지오? 너무 이상하잖아. A solution had to be found. Some bright soul who has doubtless been lost in the sands of time came up with the wonderful compromise of 라듸오. Wonderful!
Well, we can do the same with that other awkward word that we need to put on each architectural masterpiece in the country: 삘딍.
Then more time passed, and most people forgot why we needed that weird 듸 thing in the first place. So it was simplified in the official orthography. So now we have 라디오
. But every once in a while you run in to an ornery old coot who refuses to adopt the changes. Or worse, somebody who intentionally
archaizes by adopting these no longer accepted spellings. So you still find 라듸오
. Whachya gonna do with people like that? You've just got to shame them into adopting the new spelling by attacking their lack of 우리말 사랑.
So now, at a small fraction of the expense for re-claiming the land for an airport off 영정도, the Korean people have reclaimed the original 디! Except now it has a funny foreign feel to it. We've come full circle!
디 → 지 → 디
Now that it's kindly accepted by the Keepers of the Language, everyone should feel free to write "레이디" to their hearts' content. Just like the 경향 publishers do
But isn't life just a complex mess? Doesn't something always fall through the cracks? 역시. You can still see the 지 that should have turned back into a 디 at the stroke of twelve but somehow failed to transform in the funny word"다방레지
." How could this have been allowed to happen? And what the should be the effect on 티켓다방
휴 머리 아프려고 한다.
오늘 할일 다 끝났으니 딥에 가서 쉬어야디. ^^